Weava Collection - Research on Research Project Capacitation (Research Project, research, University, Southampton, rows)
- Shorter than books, journal articles typically range from 4,000 to 10,000 words.
- A downside with these concise arguments is that the article is written for peers, and so may not provide as much background or explanation as a longer book would.
- One significant advantage with a journal article is that it represents the most up-to-date research on a specific topic, or if it is an old journal article, it reveals what researchers thought at that specific point in time.
- Before being published in a journal, a researcher’s article is reviewed by anonymous peers (other experts in the specific field of the journal) who may accept the article, reject it or recommend corrections to make it worthy of publication.
- In addition, even though the article has passed peer review before being published, it may still represent research that is not yet been fully proven, or ideas that are still in development.
- Newspapers can be a good source if your research area is one in which there have been significant recent developments.
- Take care, though, in simplifying issues, journalists might also mis-interpret important details.
- Use your understanding to evaluate the reliability and objectivity of the reports.
- Good reading skills are essential for effective study. One skill needed is that of being able to locate specific information quickly from a text source. This is referred to as scanning.
- What are you hoping to get out of undertaking this project?
- Where do your academic strengths lie? Can you utilise these strengths in your research project?
- Having the discipline to work independently and meet self-imposed deadlines is as much about doing something you want to do as it is academic discipline.
- One of the greatest things with taking on a research project is the freedom you have to choose a topic and forge your own question.
- document your thoughts as you go along in a learning / research log
- develop a draft hypothesis that is broad enough to give you scope to explore but narrow enough to be manageable
- share your draft research proposal (approximately 200 words) and provide feedback on each other’s ideas to develop them further
- home in on a research topic that meets your requirements
What if my work is criticised?
Even if the feedback feels like it is overly negative to you, use it as an opportunity to rethink your work by reflecting on how you can improve it. Do not take any criticism personally.
- Datasets refer to any collections of statistics. These can be huge scale databases, or the results of small surveys perhaps even undertaken by the researcher themselves.
- Also try to keep in mind that even well conducted surveys could be inaccurate.
- Ultimately, if used correctly with a solid understanding of the data’s origins and limitations, datasets can provide empirical evidence to support your arguments.
- So, understanding whether the data is drawn from a wide, representative survey audience and can therefore be extrapolated out to make broader predictions or whether it is actually of a very specific, narrow sample is important.
- It is important that you capture and record this information.
Publication date – is it up to date? Are there newer sources of information available?
Who is the author? What is their background? Are they an expert on the subject? If so, have they produced any other materials you can access?
Contents – check the chapters to see if there are any that specifically relate to your topic (remember, you can legally photocopy one full chapter of a book [do not forget the endnotes and publication details when copying]
Index – check for any specific references to your key themes and terms
Intro/abstract/press release/executive summary – does it give a promising overview?
Scan the beginning and the conclusion to see if it seems to provide a valuable argument (There is an exercise in Week 5: Academic Reading on ‘Scanning for specific information’)
Note down reference information (e.g. name of author, title of text, place published, date published, pages used). If it is an online source make sure you record the URL and the date you accessed it. For more on why this is so important and how to use references, see Week 6: Referencing
- think about what inspires you (broad topic area)
consider what skills you might develop through undertaking a research project (transferable skills)
think very clearly about what exactly you are getting into by undertaking a research project (checklist)
- Before undertaking a research project, it is vital that you know exactly what you are getting into.
- How clearly and coherently do you feel the author has expressed their ideas? Is it easy to understand?
How well do you think that the author has narrowed down their focus from the 'Subject' to the 'Draft hypothesis'?
How well do you think that the research questions relate to the draft hypothesis?
- , data actually refers to discrete, objective facts in a digital form. Data are the basic building blocks that, when organized and arranged in different ways, lead to information that is useful in answering some questions about the business.
- your project should not just be regurgitating the work of those who came before. You should be building upon the work of the scholars that have come before you and be adding an original interpretation and your views
- You may find it useful to:
use ‘sticky notes’
create a mindmap (on paper or online)
- ‘Exploding’ out terms is an extremely useful way of both narrowing down your title, and coming up with specific terms to use when searching for sources.
- If looking for academic articles, try using Google Scholar (scholar.google.com) rather than standard Google.
- When searching the Internet, it is important to maintain a critical approach and to carefully check the origins of the information you are accessing.
- Transferable skills are core skills which are of value in a wide range of situations, subjects and jobs.
- The UNION ALL operator is used to combine the results of two SELECT statements including duplicate rows.
- The PostgreSQL UNION clause/operator is used to combine the results of two or more SELECT statements without returning any duplicate rows.
- What’s inspiring you? What’s triggering your curiosity?
- Keeping track of your research process in the form of a learning log, reflecting upon changes you have made and the reasons for this is as important a part of your research project as the essay at the end.
- The OUTER JOIN is an extension of the INNER JOIN. SQL standard defines three types of OUTER JOINs: LEFT, RIGHT, and FULL and PostgreSQL supports all of these.
- First, an inner join is performed. Then, for each row in table T1 that does not satisfy the join condition with any row in table T2, a joined row is added with null values in columns of T2. Also, for each row of T2 that does not satisfy the join condition with any row in T1, a joined row with null values in the columns of T1 is added.
- The PostgreSQL Joins clause is used to combine records from two or more tables in a database
- n case of LEFT OUTER JOIN, an inner join is performed first. Then, for each row in table T1 that does not satisfy the join condition with any row in table T2, a joined row is added with null values in columns of T2.
- First, an inner join is performed. Then, for each row in table T2 that does not satisfy the join condition with any row in table T1, a joined row is added with null values in columns of T1.
- A INNER JOIN creates a new result table by combining column values of two tables (table1 and table2) based upon the join-predicate.
- A CROSS JOIN matches every row of the first table with every row of the second table. If the input tables have x and y columns, respectively, the resulting table will have x+y columns.
A claim refers to the writer's opinion or position regarding the matter being written about. This is not factual but debatable and so needs to be argued.
- Justification refers to the writer's interpretation of the facts or circumstances. It links the data with the claim in the argument.
- Data relates to the evidence that is used by the writer to support their claim. This may be factual or contain reference to specific examples.
- This skill involves reading a longish text or parts of one in order to get the gist (the main idea) of what it contains. The aim is not to get a detailed understanding but rather an overview of a text that may be relevant to your enquiry.
- Coming up with a good research question is a difficult thing. It must be broad enough to give you scope to explore, but narrow enough to be manageable.
Working research question
- Effective note taking is related to identifying the information which is relevant without having to note everything down.
- At the heart of much academic writing is an argument. An academic argument can vary in form according to the subject area; however, there are shared common elements.
- Search for ‘research methods’ by whatever topic your project aligns most closely with and you will find an appropriate range of methodologies to choose from.
- Qualitative methodologies do not provide as structured responses as those that can be obtained from quantitative methods and as such fewer inferences can be made beyond the individuals sampled.
- There are so many various methodologies for different subjects it is impossible to cover them all here. As you have done with your topic you should do the same with researching your research method!
- Quantitative methodologies produce quantifiable outcomes – you are likely to have clearly set out responses to questions you ask, otherwise known as ‘variables’.
- Secondary sources can also be used as direct evidence for (or against) a theory or hypothesis which you are investigating (though always check the primary sources that these secondary accounts rely upon). Secondary sources are also particularly useful for establishing the context of your research, the theories, concepts and definitions you will use.
- Primary sources can be used as direct evidence for (or against) a theory or hypothesis which you are investigating. It may also be used to defend assumptions which will underpin your research.
- Primary research is usually written up in journal articles, conference papers, and theses. These formats tend to allow for faster and more specific publications.
- Primary research is typically focused on original evidence – i.e. raw information which has not been processed or interpreted by other researchers. Such research may include:
- What kinds of sources do I need to pursue my particular questions?
The ‘right sources’ depend entirely on what you are studying, and the methods you plan to use. Focus on the sources you need, rather than those that seem commonplace.
- What in my research needs to be original, and what doesn’t?
Something about your research should be original (or else what is its purpose?). But ‘original research’ can mean lots of things:
Looking at old data with a new method is original research
Drawing a new conclusion from secondary sources is original research
Applying an existing theory to a new case study is original research.
- It is likely I will use both primary and secondary sources, but how should I cater for this in my structure?
Think firstly about whether you begin with a literature review, or whether to introduce your sources as you proceed.
Which sources are needed to base the project on, and establish the question – and which are needed later to do the analysis?
- Secondary research may also be written up in journal articles, conference papers, and theses. It is also commonly found in academic books, and edited volumes, in which subjects and theories can be explored in greater depth.
- What is the quality of the sources I am looking at?
A strong piece of secondary analysis is more reliable than a weak piece of primary research.
- Secondary research is typically focused on drawing conclusions based upon existing research, but possibly from a new theoretical, or methodological perspective. Such research may include:
- Effective visualization helps us in analyzing and understanding data.
- And finally, be prepared to stick with it for the long term. These things always take time, and Rome wasn't built in a day.
- Because research can be very tough. It can be a lonely place.
- Do lots and lots of reading and also lots and lots of talking to other people and listening.
- So it's worth putting some thought into that. Secondly, it's really important to know what's been done before.
- So keeping good notes as you're going is really important.
- try to understand whether that has already been done by someone else.
- So find out what other people think about that topic as well.
- Make sure you really like the thing that you are about to research.
- Research is a vast and often cyclical process with no clear path from A to B. But as with any kind of exploration, it is always worth following a path of some kind, the one that you think is most appropriate and you know that you can stick to.