Weava Collection - Research on BIO- Population Paper (Polar Bear, populations, Polar, species, numbers)
Animal Info - Polar Bear
- The age distribution of polar bears varies geographically. Adult males (age 6 and above) comprise 12 % of the Alaskan Arctic population, 18 % of the western Canadian Arctic population, and 17 % of the Hudson Bay population. Adult females comprise 26 %, 19 %, and 17 % of these three populations, respectively. Cubs of the year, yearlings, and 2 year olds constitute 32 % and 26% of the Alaskan Arctic and western Canadian Arctic populations, respectively.
- The mortality rate of cubs in their first year of life varies between 20 - 40 % in different populations. The annual mortality of cubs prior to weaning is 10 - 30%. Subadult mortality has been estimated to be 3 - 16%. Mortality of adult males and females has been estimated to be 8 - 16%. Typically, an annual mortality rate of 8 - 12% has been assumed. Adult males have a higher annual mortality rate than females.
- In Alaska, polar bear densities have been estimated to be between 1 bear/38 sq km (1 bear/15 sq mi) and 1 bear/139 sq km (1 bear/54 sq mi). In the western Canadian Arctic, where numbers experienced large fluctuations due to natural causes, the density of polar bears was estimated to be 1 bear/37 - 52 sq km (1 bear/14 - 20 sq mi).
- Polar bears have a normal life span of about 25 years for males and 30 years for females, although a small number of individuals may live longer (32 year old females have been aged in the wild). In captivity, there have been a number of individuals that have survived to be older than 40 years of age.
Polar bear habitat | WWF
- They're frequently seen along or near coasts and on islands
The truth about polar bears | Canadian Geographic
- Even more troublesome is the fact that the number of cubs observed in the western Hudson Bay population is dramatically lower than in the past. While adult bears may be fat and savvy enough to survive a few lean years, juvenile bears reach a tipping point quickly.
- Prior to the 1973 worldwide restriction on commerical polar bear hunting, that number was dramatically lower, so low that a meeting of polar bear specialists in 1965 concluded that extinction was a real possibility. Some reports even estimated the number of bears as low as 5,000 worldwide. Yet by 1990, Ian Stirling — at the time, the senior research scientist for the Canadian Wildlife Service and a professor of zoology at the University of Alberta; basically, one of the most respected polar bear scientists on the planet — felt comfortable answering the question as to whether polar bears are an endangered species by stating flatly: “They are not.” He went on to say that “the world population of polar bears is certainly greater than 20,000 and could be as high as 40,000 … I am inclined toward the upper end of that range.” Although old studies are sketchy, clearly more polar bears are alive today than there were 50 years ago, an essentially heartening fact that has not managed to pierce the public consciousness.
Bears: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan - Christopher Servheen - Google Books
- Bears: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan
Polar bear population to decline by a third by 2050: study - National | Globalnews.ca
- Arctic sea ice has been declining at the rate of about 12 per cent per decade since satellite monitoring began in the late 1970s.
Polar bear status, distribution & population | WWF
distinct sub-populations (see above map)
of polar bears are in Canada
- Polar Bear population status as of 2014.
- TIMELINE OF POLAR BEAR CONSERVATION
Several polar bear populations were decimated by unsustainable hunting by European, Russian and American hunters and trappers from the 1600s right through to the mid-1970's.
Canada, the United States, Denmark, Norway and the former USSR signed the International Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears and their Habitat, strictly regulating commercial hunting.
The US Government classified the Polar Bear under its Endangered Species Act (ESA).
The polar bear was upgraded from Least Concern to Vulnerable by the the IUCN Polar Bear Specialist Group.
Ministers and other leaders from the five polar bear range states met in Moscow for the first International Forum on Polar Bear Conservation. The leaders made significant commitments to address issues of polar bear habitat, research and trade. This event was supported by WWF.
Today, polar bears are among the few large carnivores that are still found in roughly their original habitat and range--and in some places, in roughly their natural numbers.
Although most of the world's 19 populations have returned to healthy numbers, there are differences between them. Some are stable, some seem to be increasing, and some are decreasing due to various pressures.
Status of the polar bear populations in 2014
3 populations were in decline
1 population was increasing
6 populations were stable
9 populations were data-deficient (information missing or outdated)
Some populations are still hunted quite heavily, and their status is uncertain.
In the future
By 2040, scientists predict that only a fringe of ice will remain in Northeast Canada and Northern Greenland when all other large areas of summer ice are gone. This "Last Ice Area" is likely to become important for polar bears and other life that depends on ice.
A projection of sea ice in the archipelago, supported by WWF, shows that much of the region is facing significant ice loss in the coming decades - with potentially serious consequences for polar bears.
Global polar bear numbers are projected to decline by 30% by 2050.
Polar Bear Relationships - Chill Polar Bears
- Commensalism is where one species benefits while the other is unaffected, arctic foxes travel behind polar bears and scavenge on scraps of food
- Polar bears are especially susceptible to the parasitic worm Trichinella, which they contract by feeding on infected seals. Trichinella larvae encyst in various parts of the polar bear's body, usually muscle tissue. If enough larvae encyst in one area, such as the heart, the tissue becomes severely damaged. Death may result. This is an example of parasatism where one species, the polar bear, is harmed while the other, the trinchinella, is benefited.
How will global warming affect polar bears?
- As a result, the average weight of female polar bears has dropped by about 21% between 1980 and 2004, and the population declined by 22% between 1987 and 2004. In Alaska, there is evidence of increased cub mortality caused by a decline in sea ice.
Polar Bears: Proceedings of the 14th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar ... - Jon Aars, N. J. Lunn, Andrew E. Derocher - Google Books
- Polar Bears: Proceedings of the 14th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar ...
Polar Bear Research at the Alaska Science Center - Polar Bear and Sea Ice Relationship Projects
- Because of their dependence upon the sea ice for food, these changes can directly affect the carrying capacity of the Arctic for polar bears. Our studies are documenting numerical responses to these changes in sea ice.
Polar Bear Research at the Alaska Science Center - Abundance and Vital Rates Projects
- We propose that this correlation provides evidence for a causal association between earlier sea ice breakup (due to climatic warming) and decreased polar bear survival.
- The size of the Western Hudson Bay polar bear population declined from 1194 (95% CI = 1020, 1368) in 1987, to 935 (95% CI = 794, 1076) in 2004.
Threats to Polar Bears | WWF
- Oil exploration
- The greatest threat: climate change
- Toxic pollution
What WWF is doing for polar bears | WWF
- Reducing industrial impacts
- Promoting sustainable tourism
- Protecting critical habitat
- Ensuring sustainable hunting
- Addressing climate change
- Creating safer communities
- Supporting polar bear research
Status - Polar Bears International
- Long-term studies on population
when did victor hugo start writing les miserables - Google Search
- Hugo began planning a major novel about social misery and injustice as early as the 1830s, but it would take a full 17 years for Les Misérables to be realized and finally published in 1862
Polar Bear | Species | WWF
- This map shows the 19 subpopulations of polar bears across the Arctic.
- Contact with spilled oil would be fatal.
An oil spill would affect the entire food chain.
Polar Bears and Climate Change: Symbiosis of Polar Bears
- Symbiosis is a close, and often long-term relationship between two or more species of organisms in which, species of organisms depend on other species to sustain life. Symbiotic relationships of organisms play influential roles in the population cycle. The most common types of symbiosis include commensalism, parasitism, and mutualism. Polar bears share a mutualistic relationship with the arctic foxes. Mutualism is a relationship in which both species of organisms benefit from each other. The arctic foxes follow behind polar bears and feed on the wastes of their meals (Arctic Studies Center, 2004). The polar bear benefits from the arctic foxes by sometimes hunting them for food (Arctic Studies Center, 2004). Polar bears also share a symbiotic relationship with parasitic worms Trichinella. They share a parasitic relationship in which only one species of organisms benefit from another and the other is harmed. The larvae of the trinchinella attach to various parts of the polar bear’s body, especially the muscle tissues. When too many of the larvae attach in one specific area such as the heart, the tissues are seriously damaged and may potentially leads to death (SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment, 2014).
qpanimals / Polar Bear
- Polar bears have a Symbiotic Relationship with many things/animals
For example, the Artic White Fox and the polar bear have a mutualism relationship
They have this relationship because if a polar bear catches a seal, it wants the insides of the seal
The Artic Fox wants the scraps of the seal and it wants the skin and other things from the seal
Each species benefits in this situation
The polar bear kills/drags the seal to a place, eats most of it, and then the small artic fox can have the other parts the polar bear will not eat
But sometimes, if the fox is not careful, and it gets to close to the polar bear before its done eating, the fox might soon become the polar bear's next main course.
The polar bear is related to the black bear, and the brown bear.
Species Profile (Polar Bear) - Species at Risk Public Registry
- Climate change is likely to influence all of the threats listed below for the Canadian population and it should therefore be treated as the ultimate limiting factor for the species
Hunting - Polar Bears International
Symbiotic Relationships in the Arctic
- Typically, it is seen in the case of a liver tapeworm cyst. These organisms are prone to live and thrive in the bodies of various animals including wolves, caribou, polar bears, and moose. They feed on the food the animal eats, and as a result, the animal develops malnutrition.
Distribution and Abundance of Canadian Polar Bear Populations: A Management Perspective | Taylor | ARCTIC
- The density estimates of polar bears ranged between 1.1 and 10.4 bears per 1000 sq km with a weighted mean of 4.1 bears per 1000 sq km.
polar bear | Basic Facts About Polar Bears | Defenders of Wildlife
- Polar bears feed almost exclusively on ringed seals and bearded seals. They are also known to eat walrus, beluga whale and bowhead whale carcasses, birds’ eggs, and (rarely) vegetation. Polar bears travel great distances in search of prey.
- As in any animal population, a variety of diseases and parasites can be responsible for polar bear illnesses. Polar bears are especially susceptible to the parasitic roundworm Trichinella, which they contract by feeding on infected seals. Trichinella larvae encyst in various parts of the polar bear's body, usually muscle tissue. If enough larvae encyst in one area, such as the heart, the tissue becomes severely damaged. Death may result.