Weava Collection - Research on NURS 299 (risks, women, muscle mass, adults, preterm delivery)
- Malnutrition, in turn, increases the risks for the development of a range of pathologies associated with most organ systems, in particular the nervous-, muscoskeletal-, cardiovascular-, immune-, and skin systems.
- These alterations progressively decrease the ability of the GIT to provide the aging organism with adequate levels of nutrients, what contributes to the development of malnutrition.
- mechanical disintegration of food, gastrointestinal motor function, food transit, chemical food digestion, and functionality of the intestinal wall
- gastrointestinal tract (GIT)
- experience reduced enjoyment of mealtimes
- have poor appetite
- Widowed older adults are more likely to skip meals
- Should the Guidelines for Protein Intake in Older Adults Be Revised?
- Skeletal muscle contractile proteins are the largest functioning storage system for essential amino acids, making the muscle susceptible to significant losses in conditions of need, such as fasting and critical illness
- sex-specific decrease of hormones such as androgen and growth hormone.
- sarcopenia (decreased muscle mass and function)
- increase in inflammatory processes
- lean muscle mass is changed into fatty muscle mass by an infiltration of fat into muscle
- Sarcopenic obesity
- extensive body fat mass accumulation
- “loss of skeletal muscle mass and muscle function
- Obesity prevalence is increasing in the older populatio
- decline in PA and inappropriate food consumption can be important contributing factors.
- increase of insulin resistance
- Sarcopenia can lead to functional impairments and mobility limitations,
- One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function referred to as sarcopenia
- obesity (excess body fat mass)
- propensity of falls and immobility,4,5 thus leading to disabilities in older persons.
- disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations.
- Therefore, long-term maintenance of the reduced body fat mass and the preserved lean body mass is of utmost importance after any intervention.
- premature rupture of the fetal membranes and idiopathic preterm labor.
- Th e results of our study shows that pre-term delivery with premature rupture of membranes had 35.6% of our patients.
- Pregnant women delivered prematurely atend to have burdened obstetrical history, and presence of extragenital diseases is also signifi cantly higher
- The most common etiological factor of preterm delivery in the experimental group was preterm rupture of membranes and idiopathic preterm delivery
- Th e incidence of preterm birth was higher in mothers younger than 18 and older than 35 years.
- Our study, wich included the total number of pregnant women with the burdened obstetrical hisory, shows that 17.2% of pregnant women who preterm delivered already had a preterm delivery.
- (hyperten-sion in pregnancy-preeclampsia, eclampsia, diabetes, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism
- Choosing to smoke implied control and power; participants sought this status as it maintained their belief they could also choose to qui
- Tensions caused by discrepancies between smokers’ beliefs, a desire to quit and continued smoking may become acute among women who are pregnant and smoking.
- Promoting the health risks of smoking during pregnancy may thus fail to trigger quit attempts because the distal risks smokers perceive as uncertain fail to outweigh the proximal benefits they receive.
- and more likely to experience learning and cognitive development disorders.
- Cessation messages must decrease the value placed on smoking as a reward, offer alternatives, challenge the myths and self-exempting beliefs pregnant smokers construct, and provide stimuli that prompt and support quit attempts.
- increased risk of miscarriage, low birthweight babies, stillbirth and sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI).
- Advice to quit from healthcare providers may exacerbate these tensions, as may the strong social disapproval these women risk attracting from individuals outside their immediate family or peer networks
- Messages that applied the metaphor of choice and control to quitting and protecting babies’ and young children's health provided participants with new motivation to quit and avoided the reactance more didactic messages evoked.
- respiratory infections and asthma,2
- Hispanic mothers had a significantly higher prevalence of anencephalus (prevalence ratio = 1.53) and spina bifida
- Higher intakes of dietary fiber reduce the risk of developing several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, and have been associated with lower body weights
- Physiological anorexia of aging is often seen in depressed older adults  and leads to a decline in macro- and micronutrient intake, while low serum levels of vitamin D , B6 and B12 [25, 26], and zinc  have all been linked to increased risk for depression
- depression and malnutrition are associated with functional impairments, coexisting medical illness, and mortality
- undernourishment concomitant with obesity in older adults.
- hronic overeating, underconsumption of nutrient-rich foods, and decline in physical activity.
- Psychosocial factors that contribute to decreased food intake include depression, social isolation, and loneliness, to name a few.
- One of the most important risk factor for preterm delivery is previous preterm delivery
- “traditional” pattern was associated with reduced risk of preterm delivery
- “prudent” pattern were associated with significantly reduced risk of preterm delivery
- Periconceptional folic acid intake has been shown to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs)
- Approximately 10% of women who did not report use of a supplement containing folic acid had RBC concentrations corresponding to the high risk category for population NTD risk; with an additional 18% with RBC concentrations consistent with an elevated risk for NTDs
- In the United States, folic acid intake comes from three sources: enriched cereal grain products (ECGP); ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals, and folic acid-containing dietary supplements.
- Women had greater odds of having a suboptimal RBC folate concentration if they did not use dietary supplements containing folic acid
- Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic race/ethnicity and being a current smoker were associated with significantly increased odds of having suboptimal RBC folate concentrations
- When denied the psychological and social space necessary for experiencing a sense of initiative, children develop self-doubt and guilt
- young child’s cognitive abilities can negotiate increasingly abstract thinking with the desire to build, to imagine, to use technology and to acquire knowledge through systematic procedures.
- This sense of Competence provides the ground plan for an emerging understanding of ‘work’12 and of its role in one’s culture.
- Maturity emerges when a person works (or is so guided by the social spheres of influ-ence) to find balance between the strengths and weaknesses, the posi-tives and the negatives, of each stage.
- If he despairs of his tools and skills or of his status among his tool partners, he may be discouraged from identification with them and with a section of the tool world
- The child’s danger, at this stage, lies in a sense of inadequacy and inferiority
- sense of Industry that provides a sense of Competence that is required to learn the skills for survival in one’s society and culture
- Probably depression influences the appetite, food in-take and reduced energy in-take and this can lead to weight loss and increase the risk of malnutrition.
- When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes
- When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle)
- The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines
- When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes
- amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients, with the depression group consuming less alanine aspartic acid, fatty acid 20:5 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]), fiber, niacin and vitamin B6.
- incidence of falls and poor quality of life may be partially associated with the presence of depression.
- quality of life (QoL
- Poor nutrition is associated with a greater chance of the occurrence of many diseases and adverse health outcomes, such as sarcopenia, frailty syndrome and disability
- Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of lean muscle mass; dynapenia, the age-related loss of muscle strength; rapid weight loss; and excessive adiposity are all contributing factors to the development of frailty
- Frailty is a clinical syndrome characterized by increased vulnerability to adverse health outcomes including acute illness, decline in physiological reserve, and increased risk for adverse outcomes including acute illness, disability, falls, hospitalization, the need for long-term care, and death
- a mastery approach to learning could be useful in promoting self-efficacy and reducing self-handicapping strategies
- As such, boys may be quicker to devalue the scholastic competence domain than girls when perceived competence falls short of domain centrality. This may be in part due to lower academic expectations among parents and teachers with respect to African American boys
- Self-worth has long been considered pivotal to well-being in children and has implications for psychological adjustment, including mood and motivation
- For African American children (especially boys) who feel less scholastically competent in relation to centrality, interventions that conveyed high expectations, emphasized their progress, encouraged utilization of relevant learning strategies, and highlighted an incremental view of ability (e.g., Dweck, 2007; Good, Aronson, & Inzlicht, 2003) would be useful.
- Educational practices that boost academic performance and importance ratings in a culturally relevant manner would be appropriate.
- Moreover, taking the domain less seriously could be beneficial. Low domain centrality may allow one to appreciate social relations and outcomes in a way that better honored and acknowledged competencies and circumstances.
- (a) applied rules, expectations, and discipline in an equitable and sensitive manner, (b) conveyed what children were capable of even when it was not demonstrated, and (c) provided reasonable support and structure toward meeting behavioral expectations would help achieve this end.
- enhancing perceptions of scholastic competence without addressing importance could undermine well-being and be detrimental to learning engagement.
- These findings suggest that intervention efforts geared toward supporting an optimal relation between behavioral conduct and self-worth among African American children would involve taking special care to separate undesirable actions from personhood and encouraging appropriate yet high behavioral expectations.
- ys (e.g., Wood et al., 2007; Wood, Kurtz-Costes, Rowley, Okeke-Adeyanju, 2010), and other socialization forces that encourage their adoption of a masculine and detached persona
- That is, if or when social acceptance involves adhering to standards that conflict with core or cultural values (e.g., Boykin, Tyler, & Miller, 2005), or when children perceive inequities or high costs associated with social acceptance, authentic social experiences (e.g., where one feels comfortable and free to be genuine, or has sufficient reciprocity in relations) are undermined
- Part of reasonable support and structure should include community building efforts consistent with the Africentric value of communalism. Instilling in children a sense of “we” in the social context, where they felt interconnected to others may serve to enhance children’s sensitivity to how their behaviors affected others
- The pattern of findings suggested that in addition to domain centrality, cultural issues and context play a role
- Sarcopenia as a condition is a major cause of frailty and disability in older adults; as an active process, it is present in every person reaching adult life
- secondary sarcopenia, such as disuse and lack of physical activity, malnutrition, chronic inflammation, and comorbidity.
- With aging, the loss of muscle mass is accompanied by an increase in body fat
- defines sarcopenia as an age-related loss of muscle mass, combined with loss of strength, functionality, or both
- The balance between muscle protein anabolism and catabolism is vitally important to maintaining skeletal muscle mass, particularly in older adults who lose muscle mass as a consequence of aging and/or illness
- Malnutrition-Sarcopenia Syndrome,
- Lean body mass (LBM) is defined as that portion of the body mass that is everything but fat and includes water, mineral, muscle, and other protein-rich structures
- tarvation-related without inflammation
- associated with increased morbidity, in particular increased infection and complications rates, including falls  and disability
- fatigue, muscle weakness, increased predisposition to metabolic disorders, and increased risk of falls and fractures
- With the prediction of both low birthweight and small for gestational age, symphysis-fundal height was cate- gorised as having or generating only moderate accuracy, th
- symphysis-fundal height is unsuitable for primary screening of low birthweight or small for gestational age
- Multiple risk factors are identified for sarcopenia, including among others, physical inactivity, chronic diseases, malnutrition, and low protein intake
- loss of muscle mass, strength, and physical performance
- risk of osteoporosis—a major cause of fractures in postmenopausal women and elderly adults—is reduced by a combination of diet and exercise. Similarly, optimal diets have been associated with lower risk of chronic diseases, notably coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, and some forms of cancer.
- no doubt that there is a substantial decline in food intake with advancing age
- Reduced energy intakes can lead to inadequate intakes of protein, vitamins, and minerals
- aging is generally associated with more body fat and reduced muscle mass
- 50 years and older, 37% to 50% had osteopenia whereas 13% to 18% had osteoporosis.
- NHANES III data show potentially important decreases with age in median protein and zinc intakes (down by about one third in men) as well as intakes of calcium, vitamin E, and other nutrients
- possible that in older adults excess adiposity gradually plays less of a role in developing diabetes, whereas low muscle could become more of a risk factor.
- Old age is associated with a loss of peripheral fat and overall body weight, yet despite this, diabetes incidence and its association with mortality remains high
- Lean muscle plays a key role in metabolic function, contributing to both glucose consumption and storage (1, 2), which in turn can regulate glucose levels and prevent hyperglycemia
- assessed whether initiation and timing of pre-natal vitamin use influences the risk of preterm birth
- The single largest group at risk for malnutrition is composed of elderly adults. The health care professional should refer the individual to a physician when there has been an involuntary weight loss of 10 lb or more within a 6-month period. Additional anthropometric measurements suggesting malnutrition include:
Triceps skinfold thickness less than 10th percentile
Midarm muscle circumference less than 10th percentile
Serum albumin level less than 3.5 mg/dL
Evidence of osteoporosis or mineral deficiency (indicated by a history of bone pain or fractures, particularly in older women)
Evidence of vitamin deficiency (indicated by inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables, angular stomatitis, glossitis, or bleeding gums; pressure ulcers in bedridden individuals)
- Nutrient supplements are sometimes necessary for specific populations to obtain desirable amounts of particular nutrients. These include:
Folic acid for women who could be pregnant to help prevent neural tube defects
Iron during pregnancy
Calcium for individuals who do not meet the recommended intake of calcium
Vitamin D for elderly people who do not drink generous quantities of fortified milk or who do not manufacture vitamin D from sunlight
- For most people in the United States, income has risen over time. However, growth in income has not increased equally for all households. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 15.1% of the population lived below the poverty level. Of those people, about 35.5% were children, people with disabilities comprised 28%, and older Americans were at 25%. Regionally, poverty is concentrated in the South, followed by the West, Midwest, and Northeast. It also appears higher in cities than rural areas. In 2010, groups with high poverty rates included Hispanics at 20.6% and African Americans at 24.3%
- Wash fresh fruits and vegetables thoroughly.
Drink pasteurized juices.
Do not consume raw (unpasteurized) milk and/or cheeses made from raw milk.
Eat food that has been chilled and refrigerated properly.
When eating out, make sure that food has been chilled and refrigerated properly.
When shopping, buy perishable foods last and take them straight home.
Whether raw or cooked, never leave meat, poultry, eggs, fish, or shellfish out at room temperature for more than 2 hours. Be sure to chill leftovers as soon as you are finished eating.
- Major risk factors for heart disease include:
HDL less than 40 mg/dL
Clinical forms of atherosclerotic disease (peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and symptomatic carotid artery disease)
Age 55 for men and 65 for women
Hypertension (BP = 140/90 mm Hg, or on antihypertensive medication)
Diabetes (fasting glucose 110 mg/dL)
Family history of premature heart disease (heart disease in a first-degree relative at age 55 for men or age 65 or younger for women)
- When the local WIC agency has reached its maximal caseload, vacancies are generally filled in the order of the following priority levels:
Pregnant women, breastfeeding women, and infants determined to be at nutritional risk from serious medical problems.
Infants up to 6 months of age whose mothers participate in WIC or are eligible to participate.
Children (up to age 5) at nutritional risk from serious medical problems.
Pregnant or breastfeeding women and infants who are at nutritional risk from dietary problems.
Children (up to age 5) at nutritional risk for dietary problems.
Non-breastfeeding postpartum women with any nutritional risk.
Individuals at nutritional risk only because they are homeless or migrants, and current participants who would likely continue to have medical and/or dietary problems without WIC assistance.
- Preconception multivitamin (19%–24%) and folic acid intake (13%–14%) was lower than prior reports from minority women of low socioeconomic status
- The combination of obesity and pregnancy increases the risk for additional complications of gestational diabetes, hypertension, cesarean deliveries with their infectious complications, birth defects, and stillbirth
- USDA dietary guidelines, which recommend daily consumption of dairy, fruit, proteins, vegetables, and grains.
- Potassium is important to bone health because of its effects on the processes that maintain calcium homeostasis, particularly urinary calcium conservation and excretion.
- (sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium) are also known to affect the calcium economy and bone status
- The patterns of the FH growth curve in pregnant women with term LBW infants plotted against the standard FH growth curve for Thai women may reflect the size and growth of the fetus at different stages of pregnancy. It might be used as a guideline or a simple tool to monitor and screen for term LBW infants, from early pregnancy. Detected cases need intervention to reduce complications that may arise from term LBW infants.
- As FH is only a surrogate measure for fetal size, it does not reflect just the fetal size but may be influenced by the amount of amniotic fluid, fetal position, body shape, and types of pelvis.23 Furthermore, a standard FH growth curve derived from all pregnant women may not be appropriate for women with low or high BMI,25 causing false classification.
- The patterns of FH growth curves observed among pregnant women with term LBW infants may be used to identify women who are likely to deliver term LBW infants from early pregnancy, during pregnancy, and on the day of admission for labor
- Pattern I
- 1) high-protein/fruit
- high-protein/fruit pattern was associated with decreased likelihood of preterm birth
- objectives of this study were to identify associations between maternal dietary patterns in the 12 mo before conception on fetal growth and preterm delivery.
- 2) high-fat/sugar/takeaway
- Smoking is known to increase the risk of both spontaneous and elective preterm birth, but its association with spontaneous preterm birth is stronger.
- It is thought that a functional withdrawal of progesterone through localized receptor antagonism in the uterus occurs prior to the onset of labor in humans.
- The observation that passive smoking reduces birth weight
- cessation rates are better with nicotine replacement therapy
- Smoking is associated with increased preterm birth rates and with other adverse outcomes such as reduced birth weight,35 congenital abnormalities,54,55 and increased stillbirth,56 miscarriage57 and neonatal death rates.
- moking may increase the risk of PPROM by several mechanisms: first, smoking is known to reduce immunity and predispose to infection which may be one of the main causes of preterm labor, both with PPROM and without PPROM